DIABETES CARE: The Prognostic Significance of Diabetes and Microvascular Complications in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

     


    This study examined the prognostic significance of diabetes and microvascular complications in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

     

    This analysis included 3,385 patients (mean age 69 ± 9.6 years; 49% male; 89% white) with HFpEF from the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial (TOPCAT). Diabetes and microvascular complications were ascertained by self-reported history and medical record review. Microvascular complications included neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Outcomes included hospitalization, hospitalization for heart failure, death, and cardiovascular death. Cox regression was used to examine the risk of each outcome associated with diabetes and microvascular complications.

     

    Of the 1,109 subjects (32%) with diabetes, 352 (32%) had at least one microvascular complication. Patients with diabetes and microvascular complications had an increased risk for hospitalization (no diabetes: referent; diabetes + no microvascular complication: hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.01, 1.37; diabetes + microvascular complications: HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25, 1.89; P-trend <0.001), hospitalization for heart failure (no diabetes: referent; diabetes + no microvascular complication: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14, 1.99; diabetes + microvascular complications: HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.38, 2.80; P-trend <0.001), death (no diabetes: referent; diabetes + no microvascular complication: HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04, 1.75; diabetes + microvascular complications: HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.22, 2.45; P-trend = 0.0017), and cardiovascular death (no diabetes: referent; diabetes + no microvascular complication: HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.96, 1.86; diabetes + microvascular complications: HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09, 2.65; P-trend = 0.018). When the analysis was limited to participants who reported prior hospitalization for heart failure (n = 2,449), a higher risk of rehospitalization for heart failure was observed across diabetes categories (no diabetes: referent; diabetes + no microvascular complication: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.01, 1.96; diabetes + microvascular complications: HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18, 2.70; P-trend = 0.0036).

     

    Diabetes is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in HFpEF, and the inherent risk of adverse outcomes in HFpEF patients with diabetes varies by the presence of microvascular complications.